|PERLHPUX(1)||Perl Programmers Reference Guide||PERLHPUX(1)|
swinstall -s /cdrom perl
assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom.
That build was a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112.
If you perform a new installation, then (a newer) Perl will be installed automatically. Pre-installed HP-UX systems now have more recent versions of Perl and the updated modules.
The official (threaded) builds from HP, as they are shipped on the Application DVD/CD's are available on <http://www.software.hp.com/portal/swdepot/displayProductInfo.do?productNumber=PERL> for both PA-RISC and IPF (Itanium Processor Family). They are built with the HP ANSI-C compiler. Up till 5.8.8 that was done by ActiveState.
To see what version is included on the DVD (assumed here to be mounted on /cdrom), issue this command:
# swlist -s /cdrom perl # perl D.5.8.8.B 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language perl.Perl5-32 D.5.8.8.B 32-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language with Extensions perl.Perl5-64 D.5.8.8.B 64-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language with Extensions
To see what is installed on your system:
# swlist -R perl # perl E.5.8.8.J Perl Programming Language # perl.Perl5-32 E.5.8.8.J 32-bit Perl Programming Language with Extensions perl.Perl5-32.PERL-MAN E.5.8.8.J 32-bit Perl Man Pages for IA perl.Perl5-32.PERL-RUN E.5.8.8.J 32-bit Perl Binaries for IA # perl.Perl5-64 E.5.8.8.J 64-bit Perl Programming Language with Extensions perl.Perl5-64.PERL-MAN E.5.8.8.J 64-bit Perl Man Pages for IA perl.Perl5-64.PERL-RUN E.5.8.8.J 64-bit Perl Binaries for IA
The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed to port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions available.
HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries from /opt to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start of July 2002 are located in /usr/local.
One of HP porting centres URL's is <http://hpux.connect.org.uk/> The port currently available is built with GNU gcc. As porting modern GNU gcc is extremely hard on HP-UX, they are stuck at version gcc-4.2.3.
Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific details.
HP's HP9000 Unix systems run on HP's own Precision Architecture (PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the Motorola chipset. Even though PA-RISC hardware is not sold anymore, a lot of machines still running on these CPU's can be found in the wild.
The last order date for HP 9000 systems was December 31, 2008.
HP PA-RISC systems are usually referred to with model description "HP 9000". The last CPU in this series is the PA-8900. Support for PA-RISC architectured machines officially ended as shown in the following table:
PA-RISC End-of-Life Roadmap +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+ | HP9000 | Superdome | PA-8700 | Spring 2011 | | 4-128 | | PA-8800/sx1000 | Summer 2012 | | cores | | PA-8900/sx1000 | 2014 | | | | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015 | +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+ | HP9000 | rp7410, rp8400 | PA-8700 | Spring 2011 | | 2-32 | rp7420, rp8420 | PA-8800/sx1000 | 2012 | | cores | rp7440, rp8440 | PA-8900/sx1000 | Autumn 2013 | | | | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015 | +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+ | HP9000 | rp44x0 | PA-8700 | Spring 2011 | | 1-8 | | PA-8800/rp44x0 | 2012 | | cores | | PA-8900/rp44x0 | 2014 | +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+ | HP9000 | rp34x0 | PA-8700 | Spring 2011 | | 1-4 | | PA-8800/rp34x0 | 2012 | | cores | | PA-8900/rp34x0 | 2014 | +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last part of the output of the "model" command. The second column is the PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used. (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
# model 9000/800/L1000-44 # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models L1000-44 2.0 PA8500
The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850, 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745, 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811, 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849, 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C, B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120, C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350, D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30, G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60, I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410, K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889, 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160, C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270, D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410, J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360, K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000, L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. the link that contained the explanation is dead, so here's a short summary:
HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series. HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series. HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400. rp2400, rp2405, rp2430, rp2450, rp2470, rp3410, rp3440, rp4410, rp4440, rp5400, rp5405, rp5430, rp5450, rp5470, rp7400, rp7405, rp7410, rp7420, rp7440, rp8400, rp8420, rp8440, Superdome
The current naming convention is:
aadddd ||||`+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.) |||`--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different ||| systems do not have the same numbering across ||| architectures ||`---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning || |`----- c = ia32 (cisc) | p = pa-risc | x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2) | h = housing `------ t = tower r = rack optimized s = super scalable b = blade sa = appliance
It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted, but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC 1.0 system.
Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded while running a PA-RISC executable.
HP Itanium 2 systems are usually referred to with model description "HP Integrity".
BL60p, BL860c, BL870c, BL890c, cx2600, cx2620, rx1600, rx1620, rx2600, rx2600hptc, rx2620, rx2660, rx2800, rx3600, rx4610, rx4640, rx5670, rx6600, rx7420, rx7620, rx7640, rx8420, rx8620, rx8640, rx9610, sx1000, sx2000
To see all about your machine, type
# model ia64 hp server rx2600 # /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo
HP-UX version Kernel Architecture End-of-factory support ------------- ------ ------------ ---------------------------------- 10.20 32 bit PA 30-Jun-2003 11.00 32/64 PA 31-Dec-2006 11.11 11i v1 32/64 PA 31-Dec-2015 11.22 11i v2 64 IPF 30-Apr-2004 11.23 11i v2 64 PA & IPF 31-Dec-2015 11.31 11i v3 64 PA & IPF 31-Dec-2020 (PA) 31-Dec-2025 (IPF)
See for the full list of hardware/OS support and expected end-of-life <https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/4AA4-7673ENW.pdf>
Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat mentioned above).
Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will tell you in the next step if +Z was needed. (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.) 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must be included on this line.
(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's Makefile).
If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the library is loaded.
You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an extension on one system and move it to another system where the libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These modules are then linked into the shared library.
Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent library that is already linked into perl.
Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase. HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for discussions about the subject. The short answer is that everything (all libraries, everything) must be compiled with "+z" or "+Z" to be PIC (position independent code). (For gcc, that would be "-fpic" or "-fPIC"). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
# cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix # vi Makefile ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \ -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \ -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6 # make clean # make # mkdir tmp # cd tmp # ar x ../libdb.a # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib # rm *.o # cd /usr/local/lib # rm -f libdb.sl # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl # cd .../DB_File-1.76 # make distclean # perl Makefile.PL # make # make test # make install
As of db-4.2.x it is no longer needed to do this by hand. Sleepycat has changed the configuration process to add +z on HP-UX automatically.
# cd .../db-4.2.25/build_unix # env CFLAGS=+DD64 LDFLAGS=+DD64 ../dist/configure
should work to generate 64bit shared libraries for HP-UX 11.00 and 11i.
It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even though the command-line flags are still present).
PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using an Itanium link editor.
Even though HP-UX 10.20 and 11.00 are not actively maintained by HP anymore, updates for the HP ANSI C compiler are still available from time to time, and it might be advisable to see if updates are applicable. At the moment of writing, the latests available patches for 11.00 that should be applied are PHSS_35098, PHSS_35175, PHSS_35100, PHSS_33036, and PHSS_33902). If you have a SUM account, you can use it to search for updates/patches. Enter "ANSI" as keyword.
Most mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made prebuilt gcc binaries available on <http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/> and/or <http://www.cmve.net/~merijn/> for HP-UX 10.20 (only 32bit), HP-UX 11.00, HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i v1), and HP-UX 11.23 (HP-UX 11i v2 PA-RISC) in both 32- and 64-bit versions. For HP-UX 11.23 IPF and HP-UX 11.31 IPF depots are available too. The IPF versions do not need two versions of GNU gcc.
On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and for 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects do not mix. Period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or GNU gcc. So if you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries, like Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.
Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only when you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit binary of gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with HP's native compiler.
There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled (just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install" procedure).
The list of functions that will need to recompiled is: creat, fgetpos, fopen, freopen, fsetpos, fstat, fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate, ftw, lockf, lseek, lstat, mmap, nftw, open, prealloc, stat, statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile, truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get this right for you.
HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20, April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available on H.Merijn's site (<http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/>). The use of PTH will be unsupported in perl-5.12 and up and is rather buggy in 5.11.x.
If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1 libcma-00000.1: HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export) Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24 libcma-19739.1: HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export) Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07 libcma-20608.1: HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export) Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23 libcma-23672.1: HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export) Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06 d3:/usr/lib 107 >
If you choose for the PTH package, use swinstall to install pth in the default location (/opt/pth), and then make symbolic links to the libraries from /usr/lib
# cd /usr/lib # ln -s /opt/pth/lib/libpth* .
For building perl to support Oracle, it needs to be linked with libcl and libpthread. So even if your perl is an unthreaded build, these libraries might be required. See "Oracle on HP-UX" below.
As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on HP-UX 11.00 and up for both cc- and gcc builds. If you are about to build a 64-bit perl with GNU gcc, please read the gcc section carefully.
Should a user have the need for compiling Perl in the LP64 environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (with the +DD64 flag for HP C-ANSI-C, with no additional options for GNU gcc 64-bit on PA-RISC, and with -mlp64 for GNU gcc on Itanium). If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.)
You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's perspective. When configuring -Duse64bitint using a 64bit gcc on a pa-risc architecture, -Duse64bitint is silently promoted to -Duse64bitall.
In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations, it is known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.
the error might show something like:
Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096 Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33 sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
and Configure will give up.
When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box. Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your system.
In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
#0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
The key here is the "nss_delete" call. One workaround for this bug seems to be to create add to the file /etc/nsswitch.conf (at least) the following lines
group: files passwd: files
Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough, the same bug also affects Solaris.
--- /usr/include/inttypes.h 2001-04-20 18:42:14 +0200 +++ /usr/include/inttypes.h 2000-11-14 09:00:00 +0200 @@ -72,7 +72,7 @@ #define UINT32_C(__c) __CONCAT_U__(__c) #else /* __LP64 */ #define INT32_C(__c) __CONCAT__(__c,l) -#define UINT32_C(__c) __CONCAT__(__CONCAT_U__(__c),l) +#define UINT32_C(__c) __CONCAT__(__c,ul) #endif /* __LP64 */ #define INT64_C(__c) __CONCAT_L__(__c,l)
cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 535: warning 562: Redeclaration of "sendfile" with a different storage class specifier: "sendfile" will have internal linkage. cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 536: warning 562: Redeclaration of "sendpath" with a different storage class specifier: "sendpath" will have internal linkage.
They seem to be caused by broken system header files, and also other open source projects are seeing them. The following HP-UX patches should make the warnings go away:
CR JAGae12001: PHNE_27063 Warning 562 on sys/socket.h due to redeclaration of prototypes CR JAGae16787: Warning 562 from socket.h sendpath/sendfile -D_FILEFFSET_BITS=64 CR JAGae73470 (11.23) ER: Compiling socket.h with cc -D_FILEFFSET_BITS=64 warning 267/562
With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.